【中英文稿】摩天大楼为什么能稳稳地建在城市当中?
2019-03-02 16:26:28   来源:   评论:0 点击:

【站内视频链接÷4种字幕】:【中英文稿】:In 1956,1956年architect Frank Lloyd Wright修建师弗兰克·劳埃德·怀特proposed

【站内视频链接÷4种字幕】:
【中英文稿】:

In 1956,

1956年

architect Frank Lloyd Wright

修建师弗兰克·劳埃德·怀特

proposed a mile-high skyscraper。

提出了建造一个高达1英里的摩天大楼的想法

It was going to be the world’s tallest building,

它将比世界上其余任何修建都要高

by a lot —

要高很多-

five times as high as the Eiffel Tower。

是埃菲尔铁塔的5倍高

But many critics laughed at the architect,

然而许多批判家讪笑了他

arguing that people would have to wait hours for an elevator,

他们宣称人们得等好几个小时能力等复电梯

or worse, that the tower would collapse under its own weight。

或许更糟的状况,这个大厦将会由于无法蒙受本身的分量而倒塌

Most engineers agreed,

大多数工程师示意赞同

and despite the publicity around the proposal,

只管这个提议广为人知

the titanic tower was never built。

但这个巨型大厦始终没有建成

But today,

然而今日

bigger and bigger buildings are going up around the world。

世界各地的修建越建越大

Firms are even planning skyscrapers more than a kilometer tall,

很多公司甚至在规划建造超越1公里高的摩天大楼

like the Jeddah Tower in Saudi Arabia,

比方沙特阿拉伯的吉达大厦

three times the size of the Eiffel Tower。

是埃菲尔铁塔的3倍大

Very soon,

兴许很快

Wright’s mile-high miracle may be a reality。

怀特的1英里高的修建奇观就会成为现实

So what exactly was stopping us

所以70年前究竟是什么绊住了

from building these megastructures 70 years ago,

咱们建成这些巨型修建的脚步

and how do we build something a mile high today

咱们现在又是怎样建成一英里高的修建的

In any construction project,

在每一个修建名目中

each story of the structure needs to be able to support the stories on top of it。

每一层修建的构造空间都要可以支持得住它上面的修建

The higher we build,

咱们建得越高

the higher the gravitational pressure from the upper stories on the lower ones。

低层构造所蒙受的来自下层修建的重力压力就越大

This principle has long dictated the shape of our buildings,

这个原理始终以来都抉择了咱们的修建的外形

leading ancient architects to favor pyramids with wide foundations

因而现代修建师们喜爱用有宽阔底基的金字塔构造

that support lighter upper levels。

可以蒙受住下层更轻的修建分量

But this solution doesn’t quite translate to a city skyline–

然而这个规划并不能很好实用于都市的天涯线修建

a pyramid that tall would be roughly one-and-a-half miles wide,

一个这么高的金字塔差不多有1。5英里宽

tough to squeeze into a city center。

城市中央很难容下它

Fortunately, strong materials like concrete can avoid this impractical shape。

荣幸的事,像混凝土一样松软的资料可以避免建成这种不实在际的外形

And modern concrete blends are reinforced with steel-fibers for strength

现代的混凝土混入钢铁纤维会加大强度

and water-reducing polymers to prevent cracking。

减水聚合物会避免修建发作决裂

The concrete in the world’s tallest tower,Dubai’s Burj Khalifa,

世界上最高的大厦-迪拜的哈利法塔的混凝土

can withstand about 8,000 tons of pressureper square meter–

可以蒙受大约每平米8000吨的压力

the weight of over 1,200 African elephants!

相称于1200头非洲象的分量

Of course, even if a building supports itself,

当然,即便一个修建可以自我承重

it still needs support from the ground。

它还是须要有来自空中的支持

Without a foundation,

没有地基

buildings this heavy would sink, fall, or lean over。

这么重的修建会下陷,坍塌或许倾倒

To prevent the roughly half a million ton tower from sinking,

为了避免这栋分量约一百万吨的高楼下沉,它底下五十公尺深处埋了

192 concrete and steel supports called piles were buried over 50 meters deep。

192 只混凝土和钢制的支持物,叫做桩。

The friction between the piles and the ground

桩和空中之间的磨擦力

keeps this sizable structure standing。

能让这么大的修建物稳定地直立。

Besides defeating gravity, which pushes the building down,

除了要战胜将修建物向下推的地心引力之外,

a skyscraper also needs to overcome the blowing wind,

摩天大楼也得要战胜风吹,

which pushes from the side。

风力会将修建物往侧边推。

On average days,

个别的状况下,

wind can exert up to 17 pounds of force per square meter on a high-rise building–

高楼上所遭到的风力可以高达每平方公尺十七磅——

as heavy as a gust of bowling balls。

犹如吹来一阵保龄球风一样。

Designing structures to be aerodynamic,

根据空气能源学来设计大楼,

like China’s sleek Shanghai Tower,

就像中国那时髦的上海中央大厦,

can reduce that force by up to a quarter。

就能将风力增添掉高达四分之一。

And wind-bearing frames inside or outside the building

修建内部或内部的抗风构造

can absorb the remaining wind force,

可以排汇剩下的风力,

such as in Seoul’s Lotte Tower。

首尔的乐天世界塔就有这种设计。

But even after all these measures,

但,就算有一切这些方式,

you could still find yourself swaying backand forth

在飓风中,在大楼顶层还是会感触到

more than a meter on top floors during a hurricane。

前后晃动超越一公尺的间隔。

To prevent the wind from rocking tower tops,

为了避免大楼顶层由于风吹而晃动,

many skyscrapers employ a counterweight weighing hundreds of tons

许多摩天大楼采取一种重达数百吨的均衡锤,

called a “tuned mass damper。”

叫做“调谐质量阻尼器”。

The Taipei 101, for instance,

比方,台北101

has suspended a giant metal orb above the 87th floor。

就在八十七楼上悬挂了一个伟大的金属球。

When wind moves the building,

当风力吹动大楼时,

this orb sways into action,

这颗球就会开端摆动,

absorbing the building’s kinetic energy。

排汇掉大楼的动能。

As its movements trail the tower’s,

当它追随着大楼在挪动,

hydraulic cylinders between the ball and the building

球和修建物之间的液压缸

convert that kinetic energy into heat,

会将静态能量转换为热能,

and stabilize the swaying structure。

让摆动的修建物能稳定下来。

With all these technologies in place,

已经有这么多技巧可以用,

our mega-structures can stay standing and stable。

咱们的超级修建已经可以站得稳稳的了。

But quickly traveling through buildings this large is a challenge in itself。

但要在这么大的修建物中疾速挪动,本身就是一种挑衅。

In Wright’s age,

在莱特的时期,

the fastest elevators moved a mere 22 kilometers per hour。

最疾速的电梯时速二十二公里。

Thankfully, today’s elevators are much faster, traveling over 70 km per hour

谢天谢地,现今的电梯快多了,时速超越七十公里,

with future cabins potentially using frictionless magnetic rails

将来的电梯车厢有可以可以用无摩擦的磁力轨道,

for even higher speeds。

到达更快的速度。

And traffic management algorithms group riders by destination

还有流量治理演算法将乘客根据目标地来分群,

to get passengers and empty cabins where they need to be。

把乘客和空车厢送到他们/它们该去的中央。

Skyscrapers have come a long way since Wright proposed his mile-high tower。

在莱特提出1。5英里的高楼之后,摩天大楼已经有很大的提高。

What were once considered impossible ideas

以前被以为不可以的点子,

have become architectural opportunities。

已经变成了修建的时机。

Today it may just be a matter of time

现今,修建物能否会再增添1。5英里高度,

until one building goes the extra mile。

可以只是时光的问题而已。

【内部视频链接】:
10:03

「快科普」摩天大楼为什么能稳稳地建在城市当中将来会涌现 艾菲尔铁塔的五倍高的摩天大楼吗【中英+可调字幕】

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英文文稿:

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